Avoiding middle-income growth traps

Pierre-Richard Agénor, Otaviano Canuto, Michael Jelenic, 21 December 2012



In the postwar era, many countries have managed to quickly reach middle-income status, but few have gone on to become high-income economies1. Rather, after an initial period of rapid ascent, many countries have experienced a sharp slowdown in growth and productivity, falling into what has been called a ‘middle-income trap’:

Topics: Development, International trade, Labour markets, Productivity and Innovation
Tags: income, innovation, investment, labour market reform, middle income

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