Ejaz Ghani, Arti Grover Goswami, William Kerr, 18 November 2015

Urbanisation in India is taking many twists and turns. Organised manufacturing is moving out of urban areas, while unorganised manufacturing is transitioning towards urban areas. As the fourth greatest energy consumer in the world, how the country manages this ongoing industrialisation and urbanisation process will have important environmental implications. This column looks at the relationship between growth, geography, and energy efficiency in manufacturing in India. Electricity consumption per unit of output has declined in urban and rural areas, but these overall trends mask substantial variation between states and substantial potential for further efficiency improvements in energy-intensive industries.

Cristina Cattaneo, Giovanni Peri, 14 November 2015

Climate change can affect agricultural productivity and the incentives of people to remain in rural areas. This column looks at the effects of warming trends on rural-urban and international migration. In middle-income economies, higher temperatures increased emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. In very poor countries, however, higher temperatures reduced the probability of emigration to cities or to other countries, consistent with the presence of liquidity constraints.

Scott Barrett , Carlo Carraro, Jaime de Melo, 10 November 2015

This year, for the first time ever, nearly all of the world’s countries are making pledges to help limit future climate change. As of 1 October, 147 countries (representing about 85% of global emissions) have submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. These pledges, if carried out in full, are expected to lower emissions relative to the ‘business as usual’ forecast. However, they are not expected to prevent emissions from increasing above today’s level through 2030. To meet the global goal of limiting mean global temperature change to 2°C relative to the pre-industrial level, much more will need to be done after 2030. Eventually, emissions will have to fall to zero worldwide – either that, or countries will need to remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. This column introduces a new Vox eBook that looks into what needs to be done to build a climate regime that is both workable and effective.

Eugenio J. Miravete, Maria J. Moral, Jeff Thurk, 30 September 2015

Diesel vehicles have never been popular in the US, but have dominated sales in Europe. This column presents new evidence explaining why this is the case. A change in preferences and the numerous competing suppliers benefited the diffusion of diesel cars. But more important was a European environmental policy that favoured CO2 reductions. As diesel vehicles are only produced by European manufacturers, this policy provided a competitive advantage for domestic producers equivalent to a 20% import duty.

Brian Flannery, Jaime de Melo, 28 September 2015

Climate monitoring organisations report that 2015 is set to break global temperature records. Meanwhile, this December ministers will convene at the UN meeting in Paris and the WTO meeting in Nairobi to continue climate negotiations. This column reports on progress to date, arguing that small steps forward are being taken, but they are not sufficient.

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