Europe's nations and regions

Valentina Bosetti, Jeffrey Frankel, 24 November 2014

Many countries have announced emissions targets for 2020. To evaluate which countries are doing their fair share, this column proposes a ‘scorecard’ approach based on three principles of fairness in climate change mitigation: latecomer catch-up, progressivity, and cost. The authors find that most countries’ targets, including those of China and the US, are in line with what such a scorecard would suggest.

Atsushi Inoue, Chun-Hung Kuo, Barbara Rossi , 24 November 2014

The Great Recession uncovered the difficulties that economic structural models have in explaining the data. This column proposes a methodology that can help identify the sources of mis-specification by introducing exogenous processes. These exogenous processes are not structural shocks but processes that can improve the fit. The results indicate that including more labour and asset frictions in economic models could improve their performance.

Masayuki Morikawa, 23 November 2014

The appropriate level of public sector wages is debated frequently in every country, and the debate has intensified in the wake of the Global Crisis. This column presents evidence that regional wage differentials in Japan are greater in the private sector than in the public sector. In regions where public sector wages are relatively high, skilled individuals may self-select into public sector jobs. At the same time, public sector employers in metropolitan regions such as Tokyo may have difficulty in hiring high quality employees.

Iain M. Cockburn, Jean O. Lanjouw, Mark Schankerman, 22 November 2014

Patented pharmaceuticals diffuse across international borders slowly, and sometimes not at all. This column analyses the effect of patent protection and price regulation on the speed of and extent to which drugs enter new markets. There is a fundamental tradeoff between affordability – taking the form of low patent protection and strong price regulation – and rate of entry into a national market.

Ian Goldin, 21 November 2014

Global hyperconnectivity and increased system integration have led to vast benefits in terms of income, education, innovation and technology. Yet globalisation has also created serious concerns about how local events can so easily cascade over national borders to become crises that affect everyone. This Vox Talk discusses the widening gap between systemic risks and their effective management. Goldin argues that the new dynamics and complexities of globalisation are endemic and will potentially destabilise our societies unless they are addressed immediately and more effectively.

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