Gender

Gender and the glass ceiling

Tony Atkinson, Alessandra Casarico, Sarah Voitchovsky, 10 July 2014

The glass ceiling is typically examined in terms of the distribution of earnings. This column discusses the glass ceiling in the gender distribution of total incomes, including self-employment and capital income. Evidence from Canada and the UK shows we are still far from equality. Though the proportion of women in the top 1% has been rising, the progress is slower, almost non-existent, at the very top of the distribution.

Gender diversity in management in Japan

Hiromi Ishizuka, 10 July 2014

Japan has one of the highest labour market gender gaps among the advanced economies. This column examines the current status of gender diversity in management in Japan, China, and South Korea. Despite some pronounced differences, economic gender gaps are large in all of the three countries. But overall, gender diversity in management in Japan is slowly beginning to emerge.

India’s female economic participation

Piritta Sorsa, 18 June 2014

Female labour market participation in India is lower than in other emerging markets. This column discusses the dynamics and causes of this issue. Many women have dropped out of the labour market in the recent years, or work in low-paying jobs without social benefits and with large wage differentials. Raising female labour force participation could boost economic growth up to 2.4% with a package of pro-growth and pro-women policies.

Gender and the labour market

Ghazala Azmat, Barbara Petrongolo, 7 June 2014

There are considerable gender differences in pay and employment levels, and in the type of labour-market activities. This column reviews experimental studies that address different aspects of these problems. Three channels are explored: gender discrimination on the labour market, differences in individual and group preferences, and productivity. Despite recent experimental advances, gender differences in labour-market success have only been partially explained.

Addressing the teen-motherhood ‘crisis’

Kevin Lang, 2 March 2014

Although teen birth rates have been decreasing in the past two decades, teen motherhood continues to be an important public policy issue. Women who give birth as teens (and their children) have much worse outcomes as adults than those who did not. An alternative explanation is that teen mothers have had disadvantaged childhoods. This column reviews research that tries to disentangle the causation from the correlation, using biological fertility shocks. The most consistent results state that there are no large adverse adult outcomes stemming from teenage motherhood. The key to reduce teen pregnancy is changing the environment. Policies should focus on providing opportunities that disadvantaged women would not like to forgo due to a teen birth.

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