Industrial organisation

Peter Egger, Martin Ruf, Valeria Merlo, Georg Wamser, 09 February 2016

Many countries exempt foreign-sourced income from taxation at home, with income taxed only in the source country. In 2009, the UK moved from a system of tax credit to a system of tax exemption of foreign-earned income of firms. This column looks at the effects of this reform on firm behaviour. Immediately following the reform, firms were induced to pay significantly more dividends to the UK and decreased their investments. But neither effect persisted in the long run.

Nobuaki Hamaguchi, Keisuke Kondo, 07 February 2016

There is no consensus on the effects of agglomeration on innovation. This column presents new evidence on how knowledge turnover impacts the quality of innovation. Agglomerated regions with active knowledge turnover, as measured by interregional migration of university graduates, tend to have a higher number of patent citations, the metric used for quality of innovation. Cluster policy aimed at active innovation may not be effective if interregional migration of knowledge workers is inactive.

Gabriel M. Ahlfeldt, Pantelis Koutroumpis, Tommaso Valletti, 04 February 2016

Many governments are committed to promoting the roll-out of fibre optic broadband networks. Little is known, however, about the economic value of these investments. Using house prices to infer the value of high-speed internet access, this column discusses the impact of fibre optic broadband in England. A fast broadband connection is found to increase house prices sufficiently in urban areas to pass a cost-benefit test, but the case for universal delivery in rural areas is not as strong. And even in areas where people are willing to pay for a faster connection, internet providers may be unwilling to deliver it only to see house-sellers appropriate the rent from their investments.

Rui Albuquerque, Miguel Ferreira, Luis Brandao-Marques, Pedro Matos, 17 January 2016

Previous research has shown that the corporate governance practices of firms are constrained by the legal standards of their country of incorporation. This column explores how an active international market for corporate control can substitute for weak institutions in a host country. Using firm-level data from 22 countries, it shows how cross-border M&A activity improves the governance of non-target firms in the same industry, via peer pressure. These findings provide evidence for corporate governance improvements as a novel positive spillover from FDI.

Matthieu Crozet, Emmanuel Milet, 14 December 2015

Industrial classifications tend to depict the economy as a collection of separate sectors, and arbitrary lines are consequently drawn between these sectors. This column argues that this way of thinking ignores the complexity of production processes and management strategies, creating a divide between ‘manufacturing’ and ‘services’ which is stronger than it should be. In fact, manufacturing firms often produce and sell services to third parties – known as ‘servitisation’. Economic policies that fail to take into account the dual aspect of the activities of manufacturing firms may prove inadequate. 

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