Labour markets

Hiroyuki Motegi, Yoshinori Nishimura, Kazuyuki Terada, 25 September 2015

It is still not clear whether the effect of retirement on health is positive or negative. This column discusses new evidence from Japan showing that it is likely positive. In Japan, elderly people reduce their smoking and drinking after retirement. People tend to smoke and drink with their colleagues, so the result is mostly due to a peer effect.

Francesco D'Acunto, 20 September 2015

Research consistently finds that men are more risk tolerant, or even risk loving, than women. This column argues that social identity, next to biology, helps explain the stark difference in risk attitudes and beliefs across genders. Men to whom identity is salient become more risk tolerant and invest more often and with more money. Identity makes men overconfident but its effects decrease with age. This is consistent with the notion that gender stereotypes have become less stark over the last decades.

John Haltiwanger, Henry R. Hyatt, Erika McEntarfer, 11 September 2015

People tend to build their careers through job-hopping. This column adds to our growing understanding of how these job-to-job flows translate into enhanced productivity and earnings gains. Using new data, an analysis of the nature and extent of these flows by firm size and firm wages over the cycle shows that, during labour market downturns, workers tend to stay for longer on lower-paying, less productive rungs of the job ladder.

Shannon Ward, Jenny Williams, Jan van Ours, 30 August 2015

Early school leaving and criminal behaviour are important social problems. This column argues that delinquency and arrests both lead to early school leaving. The findings show that the overall reduction in education due to delinquency is at least as large as the reduction due to arrest. Crime prevention efforts thus need to extend beyond youth who come into contact with the justice system.

Paul Gaggl, Greg C. Wright, 20 August 2015

Investments in ICT could affect different types of workers within the firm in a different way. This column shows that firms that invest in ICT reorganise their production processes in a way to raise the productivity of workers who perform complex, cognitive-intensive works. This ICT investment and firm reorganisation has little effect on other types of workers.

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