Jared Rubin is an assistant professor of economics at Chapman University. He is an economic historian interested in the economic history of the Middle East and Western Europe. His research focuses on how the relationship between political and religious authorities has differentially affected economic outcomes in the two regions. His work has appeared in numerous economics journals, and he is currently writing a book on the long-run economic consequences of differing political and religious structures in the Middle East and Western Europe. He is the executive director of the Association for the Study of Religion, Economics, and Culture (ASREC). He graduated with a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 2007. For more information, visit his website: www.jaredcrubin.com.