Vítor Gaspar is Head of the Bureau of Policy Advisers, of the European Commission. Until January 2007, he was Special Adviser at the Banco de Portugal. Before that he served as the first Director-General Research at the European Central Bank, between 1998 and 2004. He has also been Director of Research at the Bank of Portugal and Director of Economic Studies at the Portuguese Ministry of Finance. He has authored and (or) edited several books including Monetary Policy in the Euro Area: Strategy and Decision-Making at the European Central Bank (joint with Otmar Issing, Ignazio Angeloni and Oreste Tristani), published by Cambridge University Press. He has also published widely in scientific journals. .