Agglomeration and product innovation in China

Hongyong Zhang, 21 July 2014

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Spatial agglomeration of economic activities is generally assumed to improve productivity and spur firms’ innovation through localisation economies and urbanisation economies.1 There is an extensive empirical literature investigating the effects of localisation and urbanisation on firm-level productivity.

Topics: Productivity and Innovation
Tags: agglomeration, China, clusters, innovation, productivity, R&D, spatial concentration, subsidies

Protection of intellectual property to foster innovations in the service sector

Masayuki Morikawa, 20 July 2014

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Given the declining labour force due to population ageing, accelerating the productivity growth of industries – especially the service industries – is an important element of the growth strategy in Japan and most advanced countries. While there are a variety of factors affecting productivity, innovation is one of the key determinants of productivity growth.

Topics: Productivity and Innovation
Tags: growth, innovation, intellectual property, Japan, patents, productivity, R&D, services, trade secrets

R&D internationalisation during the Global Crisis

Bernhard Dachs, Georg Zahradnik, 6 July 2014

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Foreign firms’ share of total business R&D expenditure increased during the last three decades in almost all countries where data is available, but this trend stopped with the Global Crisis of 2008–2009. In most countries, R&D of foreign firms was more severely affected by the crisis than R&D of domestic firms.

Topics: Global crisis, Productivity and Innovation
Tags: autonomy, FDI, global crisis, globalisation, innovation, multinationals, persistence, R&D, subsidiaries

DynEmp: New cross-country evidence on the role of young firms in job creation, growth, and innovation

Chiara Criscuolo, Peter N. Gal, Carlo Menon, 26 May 2014

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Since well before the crisis, many OECD economies have been confronted with sluggish productivity growth. In the aftermath of the crisis, job creation has also stalled and has become an important policy issue. Business dynamics are at the core of the creative destruction process.

Topics: Labour markets, Productivity and Innovation
Tags: business cycles, employment, firms, growth, job creation, OECD, R&D, start-ups

US university science: The shopping mall model

Paula Stephan, 20 March 2014

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Universities have relied heavily on federal funds for research for many years. Yet, since 2005, federal funds have been flat in real terms, with the exception of funds received through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). More importantly, the hope for a substantial increase in federal funds is dim.

Topics: Education, Productivity and Innovation
Tags: external funding, R&D, Universities

The economic impact of inward FDI on the US

Theodore H. Moran, Lindsay Oldenski, 4 March 2014

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The US is the second-largest recipient of FDI in the world, behind China, and by far the largest target for FDI among OECD countries (OECD 2013). The numbers are large ($253 billion for the US), and the gap with the next-largest in the OECD is impressive ($63 billion for the UK and $62 billion for France in 2012).

Topics: Productivity and Innovation
Tags: FDI, multinationals, productivity, R&D, spillovers, US, wages

Nuclear expansion or phase-out? Costs and opportunities

Enrica De Cian, Samuel Carrara, Massimo Tavoni, 22 December 2013

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"We learned from Fukushima that we have to deal differently with risks… We believe we as a country can be a trailblazer for a new age of renewable energy sources… We can be the first major industrialized country that achieves the transition to renewable energy with all the opportunities – for exports, development, technology, jobs – it carri

Topics: Energy, Environment
Tags: carbon pricing, climate change, climate policy, energy, energy mix, environment, nuclear power, R&D

Do multinationals that expand abroad invest less at home?

Theodore H. Moran, Lindsay Oldenski, 31 October 2013

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There is a long history of politicians accusing US MNCs of “shipping jobs overseas” when they invest outside the US. President Obama, for example, has proposed special support for US firms that stay at home, and criticised those that move abroad (State of the Union speech 2012).

Topics: Industrial organisation, International trade
Tags: multinationals, R&D

Offshoring and its effects on innovation in emerging economies

Ursula Fritsch, Holger Görg, 23 September 2013

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Most empirical studies of the impact of outsourcing on firms look at industrialised countries. However, outsourcing is also common in emerging economies, and firms in middle-income countries split up their production processes similarly to firms in developed countries (see figures in Miroudot et al. (2009) on trade in intermediates).

Topics: International trade, Productivity and Innovation
Tags: emerging markets, innovation, international trade, offshoring, outsourcing, R&D, technology transfer

Does offshoring hurt domestic innovation activities?

Bernhard Dachs, Bernd Ebersberger, Steffen Kinkel, Oliver Som, 7 September 2013

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Offshoring of production activities has been a topic of economic policy debates for at least the last decade. A central issue in these debates are the economic effects of offshoring on firms in the home country.

Topics: Productivity and Innovation
Tags: Labour Markets, offshoring, R&D

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