Non-tariff measures and the WTO

Marc Bacchetta, Cosimo Beverelli, 31 July 2012



Data limitations make it difficult to document general trends in the use of non-tariff measures.

Topics: International trade
Tags: barriers to trade, GATT, non-tariff measures, protectionism, WTO

Preferential trade

Marco Fugazza, Alessandro Nicita, 15 December 2010



The multilateral trading system of the GATT and WTO is rapidly being replaced by a system dominated by preferential trade agreements. Since the conclusion of the Uruguay round in 1994, more than 300 new preferential trade agreements have been implemented.

Topics: International trade
Tags: GATT, preferential trade agreements, WTO

Retaliating against exchange-rate manipulation under WTO rules

Michael Waibel, 16 April 2010



Exchange-rate-based trade measures have gained prominence in recent years. Commentators observe such measures not only in the People’s Republic of China, but across a broad range of countries. Competitive devaluations are very much alive as a tool of economic statecraft, especially in the wake of the financial crisis.

Topics: Exchange rates
Tags: exchange-rate policy, GATT, IMF, WTO

Settling the trade/growth dispute – the impact of the Uruguay Round

Alan Taylor, Antoni Estevadeordal, 24 August 2008

The link between greater openness to trade and higher growth, once held sacred by economists, has come under contestation in recent years. Lowering trade barriers was perhaps the 1990s Washington Consensus’ most controversial prescription to developing countries, and numerous empirical studies claimed the growth effects of lower tariffs to be minimal.

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Topics: Development, International trade
Tags: developing countries, economic growth, GATT, trade liberalisation, Uruguay Round

The WTO’s difficulties in light of the GATT’s history

Douglas Irwin, Petros C. Mavroidis, 29 July 2008



The recent meeting of trade officials at the World Trade Organization in Geneva failed to reach preliminary agreements that would have made considerable progress toward concluding the Doha Round of trade negotiations. As a result, the outlook for the Round is grim, at least in terms of the immediate future. Inevitably, the failure of the meeting has raised questions about the fu

Topics: Economic history, International trade
Tags: GATT, international trade, WTO

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