Barbara Oegg, Kimberly A. Elliott, Wednesday, October 8, 2008 - 00:00

Should Western powers take more significant actions against Russia to punish its hostilities with Georgia? This column, based on analysis of all major sanctions episodes in the 20th century, argues that sanctions against Russia would be futile.

Thorvaldur Gylfason, Eduard Hochreiter, Saturday, August 2, 2008 - 00:00

The development gap between former Soviet states is striking – top performers like Estonia have joined the European Union while others, such as Georgia, lag far behind. What accounts for these differences? In the case of Estonia, this column attributes them to successful institutional reforms, good governance, and investments in education.

CEPR Policy Research