Democracy in Africa

Thorvaldur Gylfason 17 November 2013

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A man’s admiration for absolute government is proportionate to the contempt he feels for those around him.
Alexis de Tocqueville

Until the second half of the 19th century, there were so few democratic states around the world that they could be counted on the fingers of one hand.

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Topics:  Development Economic history Politics and economics

Tags:  education, democracy, growth, Africa, Corruption, fertility, life expectancy, autocracy, anocracy

Who lives longer?

Josep Pijoan-Mas, Víctor Ríos-Rull 30 September 2012

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Economists have long been worried about income inequality and its effects on welfare. For instance, workers with a college degree earn on average much more than those who did not complete high school. This disparity translates into large differences in consumption levels and hence welfare (see, for instance, Heathcote et al. 2010). We argue, however, that these welfare differences are dwarfed by the differences in longevity between individuals in different socioeconomic groups, and mainly by differences in longevity between individuals of different educational levels.

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Topics:  Education Health economics Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  education, wealth, health, life expectancy

Diseases and development: Does life expectancy increase income growth?

Uwe Sunde, Matteo Cervellati 06 January 2012

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Across countries, high life expectancy is associated with high income per capita. But do improvements in life expectancy cause increases in per capita income? The answer to this question has far-reaching implications. Support to implement better health infrastructure may not only affect individual well-being, but also foster economic development.

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Topics:  Development Health economics Macroeconomic policy

Tags:  demographics, life expectancy, population

Improving child health reduces disability and health inequalities among adults: Evidence from Ireland

Liam Delaney, James P Smith, Mark McGovern 23 October 2011

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There have been important improvements in the life expectancy of birth cohorts across time in developed countries at around 3 years per decade. Morbidity also fell at a rate of 50% among the elderly between 1984 and 2000 (Fogel 2005). Finch and Crimmins (2004) highlight the fact that declines in mortality among both the young and elderly generally begin in the same cohort – individuals experiencing improving early-life conditions were also the individuals who experienced declining rates of mortality at later ages.

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Topics:  Health economics

Tags:  Ireland, child health, life expectancy

Rising inequality between countries in adult length of life

Ryan D Edwards 10 July 2010

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Over just three decades, the difference in life expectancy across the globe has fallen dramatically (Wilson 2001). In 1970, life expectancy at birth was approaching 54 years among the poorest half of the world, nearly 15 years lower than the life expectancy in richer countries. By 2000, the gap had narrowed to just over 9 years with the poorest expected to live up to 64 and the richest between 73 and 74 years old (Edwards 2008).

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Topics:  Health economics

Tags:  Inequality, life expectancy, mortality rates

The quality of medical care, behavioural risk factors, and longevity growth

Frank R. Lichtenberg 27 June 2009

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The cost of medical care continues to rise rapidly in the US and other industrialised countries. According to a report from consulting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, US employers who offer health insurance coverage could see a 9% cost increase between 2009 and 2010, and their workers may face an even larger increase.

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Topics:  Health economics

Tags:  life expectancy, Medical care, medical innovation, healthcare costs

Longevity and investment in human capital: Lessons from today's developed countries

Moshe Hazan 27 September 2008

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Conventional wisdom suggests that an increase in life expectancy raises the time period over which investments in schooling can be amortised, thus raising schooling. Figure 1 shows the positive correlation between life expectancy at age 5 and average years of schooling for American men born between 1840 and 1970.

Figure 1. Life expectancy and educational attainment

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Topics:  Development Health economics

Tags:  education, economic growth, life expectancy

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