How has freedom evolved over time? A distinction has been made between ‘negative’ freedom – a lack of interference or coercion by others (freedom from) – and ‘positive’ freedom, the guarantee of access to markets that allow people to control their own existence (freedom to) (Berlin 1958). An example of negative freedom is economic liberty.
Economic liberty in the long run: Evidence from OECD countries
Leandro Prados de la Escosura, 7 April 2014
The dragon awakes: Is Chinese competition policy a cause for concern?
Mario Mariniello, 9 November 2013
Foreign businesses are increasingly realising that China has antitrust laws, and is not shy about using them. The Glencore/Xstrata merger in the spring was cleared only with conditions imposed by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce. In August, the Chinese National Development and Reform Commission imposed a record €82 million fine on milk powder producers for a price-fixing conspiracy.
The BRICs party is over
Anders Åslund, 4 September 2013
After a decade of infatuation, investors have suddenly turned their backs on emerging markets. In the BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China – growth rates have quickly fallen and current-account balances have deteriorated.1 The surprise is not that the romance is over but that it could have lasted for so long.
Five More Years of the G20 Standstill on Protectionism?
Simon J Evenett, 3 September 2013
“We are deeply concerned about rising instances of protectionism around the world”. So declared G20 Leaders at the end of their last summit in Los Cabos, Mexico.
Well, did performance improve?
Protectionism’s quiet return: The GTA’s pre-G8 summit report
Simon J Evenett, 13 June 2013
As the recent public recriminations over the Sino-EU trade dispute on solar panels have shown, favouring domestic firms at the expense of foreign rivals can be a transparent, noisy, and diplomatically painful matter.
Fighting financial protectionism
Dirk Schoenmaker, 18 April 2013
International cooperation between national supervisors broke down during the Global Financial Crisis. The collapse of Lehman and Fortis provide vivid illustrations that national supervisors ultimately choose for their national interest in crisis management.
Emerging-economy trade policy has become more responsive to economic shocks under the WTO
Chad P Bown, Meredith Crowley, 8 February 2013
The use of temporary protection has spread like wildfire in recent years. Even if these measures – antidumping and anti-subsidy duties for example – are perfectly consistent with WTO trade rules, there are worries that this signals a shift to protectionism (Baldwin and Evenett 2012 and Aggarwal and Evenett 2012). But there is an alternative view.
‘No gain without pain’: Antidumping protection hurts exports
Hylke Vandenbussche, Jozef Konings, 30 January 2013
Protection is often viewed as a powerful instrument to help domestic firms to raise their sales at the expense of foreign importers. But this view is now being challenged by recent research showing that the effects of protection really depend on the international orientation of the firms i.e. whether they are exporters or not.
Firm organisation: What we know and why we should care
Laura Alfaro, Paola Conconi, Harald Fadinger, Patrick Legros, Andrew Newman, 2 December 2012
A series of corporate calamities in the 2000s has helped to arouse suspicion amongst policymakers and the public that corporate organisation matters. Internal organisation issues are blamed for lost jobs, lost pensions and lost fortunes (e.g.
Market access in global and regional trade
José de Sousa, Thierry Mayer, Soledad Zignago , 20 November 2012
Considering the current context, with WTO negotiations seemingly stalled and rising protectionist pressures since the beginning of the crisis, a rigorous measure of market access difficulties, as encountered by exporters, will encourage a more informative policy debate.
- A tale of two depressions: What do the new data tell us? February 2010 updateEichengreen, O’Rourke
- The ECB’s stealth bailoutSinn
- Educated in America: College graduates and high school dropoutsHeckman, LaFontaine
- Eurozone breakup would trigger the mother of all financial crisesEichengreen
- Panic-driven austerity in the Eurozone and its implicationsDe Grauwe, Ji
Claessens, 18 April 2014
Campos, Coricelli, Moretti
Ostry, Berg, Tsangarides
CEPR Policy Research
- The buyer margins of firms' exportsCarballo, Ottaviano, Volpe
- Commodity and Equity Markets: Some Stylized Facts from a Copula ApproachDelatte, Lopez
- Ethnic Unemployment Rates and Frictional MarketsGobillon, Rupert, Wasmer