Connecting Brazil to the world

Patricia Ellen, Jaana Remes 12 July 2014

a

A

Despite a decade of rapid growth and falling poverty rates, Brazil has failed to match the global average for income growth – let alone to achieve the kind of impressive gains posted by other rapidly transforming emerging economies. As of 2012, Brazil had become the world’s seventh-largest economy, but it ranked only 95th in the world for gross national income per capita (IHS Economics and Country Risk data). To raise household living standards, Brazil needs to find a new formula for accelerating productivity growth.

a

A

Topics:  Development International trade Productivity and Innovation

Tags:  development, growth, productivity, globalisation, MERCOSUR, trade, openness, Brazil, global value chains

R&D internationalisation during the Global Crisis

Bernhard Dachs, Georg Zahradnik 06 July 2014

a

A

Foreign firms’ share of total business R&D expenditure increased during the last three decades in almost all countries where data is available, but this trend stopped with the Global Crisis of 2008–2009. In most countries, R&D of foreign firms was more severely affected by the crisis than R&D of domestic firms. However, the crisis did not lead to a new global distribution of overseas R&D expenditure.

a

A

Topics:  Global crisis Productivity and Innovation

Tags:  R&D, globalisation, multinationals, FDI, innovation, global crisis, persistence, autonomy, subsidiaries

Globalisation, job security, and wages

Kerem Cosar, Nezih Guner, James R Tybout 07 July 2014

a

A

How does increased openness to international trade affect workers’ wages and job security? This question is central to the public debate concerning the effects of globalisation, but convincing quantitative answers have been difficult to come by. One fundamental reason is that major trade liberalisation episodes have often coincided with labour reforms (Heckman and Pages 2004). Colombia is a case in point. As Figure 1 shows, this country experienced deindustrialisation, higher job turnover rates, and heightened wage inequality in the years following its 1986–1991 trade liberalisation.

a

A

Topics:  International trade Labour markets

Tags:  productivity, unemployment, globalisation, wages, trade liberalisation, Inequality, labour market reforms, exports, Colombia, job security

Global income distribution: From the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession

Christoph Lakner , Branko Milanovic 27 May 2014

a

A

The period between the fall of the Berlin Wall and the Great Recession saw probably the most profound reshuffle of individual incomes on the global scale since the Industrial Revolution. This was driven by high growth rates of populous and formerly poor or very poor countries like China, Indonesia, and India; and, on the other hand, by the stagnation or decline of incomes in sub-Saharan Africa and post-communist countries as well as among poorer segments of the population in rich countries.

a

A

Topics:  Global economy Politics and economics Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  democracy, income inequality, globalisation, Inequality

Human capital and income inequality: Some facts and some puzzles

Amparo Castelló-Climent, Rafael Doménech 23 April 2014

a

A

The rise of income inequality in many countries from 1985 onwards, and particularly during the recent crisis, has prompted a current debate on the causes and consequences of higher inequality and its effects on future growth (see, for example, OECD 2011, IMF 2014, or Ostry et al. 2014). As a result, and despite the slight reduction from 1960 to 1985, the average income Gini coefficient for developing countries was almost the same in 1960 (0.42) as it was in 2005 (0.41).

a

A

Topics:  Development Education Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  education, globalisation, human capital, Inequality, skill-biased technological change

Gross trade accounting: A transparent method to discover global value chain-related information behind official trade data: Part 2

Zhi Wang, Shang-Jin Wei, Kunfu Zhu 16 April 2014

a

A

Analytical background

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  competitiveness, globalisation, trade, comparative advantage, global value chains, global supply chain, statistics

Gross trade accounting: A transparent method to discover global value chain-related information behind official trade data: Part 1

Zhi Wang, Shang-Jin Wei, Kunfu Zhu 07 April 2014

a

A

Production segmentation across national borders has become an important feature of the world economy. With the rapid increase in intermediate trade flows, trade economists and policymakers have reached a near consensus that official trade statistics based on gross terms are deficient, often hiding the extent of global value chains. There is also widespread recognition among the official international statistics agencies that fragmentation of global production requires a new approach to measure trade, in particular the need to measure trade in value-added.

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  globalisation, trade, global value chains, global supply chain, statistics

Competing successfully in a globalising world: Lessons from Lancashire

Nicholas Crafts, Nikolaus Wolf 22 October 2013

a

A

The ‘first globalisation’ of the 19th century – driven by the substantial falls in trade costs associated with the age of steam – saw the ‘First Unbundling’ (Baldwin 2006), in which industrial production and consumption became spatially separated, often by large distances. The period was characterised by the simultaneous processes of industrialisation in Europe and de-industrialisation in Asia (Table 1).

Table 1. Shares of world manufacturing output (%)

a

A

Topics:  Economic history International trade

Tags:  globalisation, wages, trade, Industrial Revolution, cities, agglomeration, industrialisation, Lancashire, cotton

Rethinking competitiveness: The global value chain revolution

Marcel Timmer, Bart Los, Robert Stehrer, Gaaitzen de Vries 26 June 2013

a

A

The rise of global value chains is posing new challenges to analyses of international trade and countries’ competitiveness. Traditional measures are based on the assumption that all activities in the production of a good take place in the domestic economy, using domestic input only. However, with the increasing fragmentation of production across borders and the increasing use of foreign inputs, this assumption can no longer be maintained. 

a

A

Topics:  International trade

Tags:  globalisation, global value chains

Is financial globalisation in retreat? And if so, does it matter?

Richard Dobbs, Susan Lund 19 June 2013

a

A

Cross-border capital flows – including foreign direct investment, investor purchases of foreign bonds and equities, and cross-border lending – rose from $0.5 trillion in 1980 to a peak of $11.8 trillion in 2007 as national financial markets grew ever more tightly integrated. Yet when the crisis struck, that intricate web of connections rapidly transmitted shocks between countries confirming that the network of financial interdependencies can cascade risks (Elliott, Golub, and Jackson 2013).

a

A

Topics:  International finance

Tags:  globalisation

Pages

Events