Job polarisation and the decline of middle-class workers’ wages

Michael Boehm, 8 February 2014

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The decline of the middle class has come to the forefront of debate in the US and Europe in recent years. This decline has two important components in the labour market. First, the number of well-paid middle-skill jobs in manufacturing and clerical occupations has decreased substantially since the mid-1980s.

Topics: Labour markets, Poverty and income inequality
Tags: jobs, labour, middle class, routine and non-routine tasks

Why don’t African firms create more jobs?

Leonardo Iacovone, Vijaya Ramachandran, 7 February 2014

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There is an urgent need for job creation in Africa. Many economies on the continent suffer high rates of under-employment and/or low-productivity employment. In addition, because of demographic factors, many countries anticipate that large numbers of youth will enter the workforce in the near future.

Topics: Development, Labour markets
Tags: Africa, firms, jobs

Social job-search networks and the transition from school to stable employment

Francis Kramarz, Oskar Nordström Skans, 17 October 2013

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The challenges faced by young workers transitioning from school into stable employment are a major concern throughout the OECD. The search for stable employment is a time-consuming process, particularly in countries without highly developed apprenticeship systems. Many young workers – especially the least educated – are caught struggling for years.

Topics: Labour markets
Tags: graduates, jobs, unemployment, youth unemployment

Moving towards a single contract? Pros, cons and mixed feelings

Nicolas Lepage-Saucier, Juliette Schleich, Étienne Wasmer, 29 July 2013

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Dualism – the division of the labour market between highly paid primary workers in stable jobs and secondary workers in low paying precarious positions – has remained at the forefront of public debates in Europe, where it is pervasive.

Topics: Labour markets
Tags: jobs, layoffs, precarious employment

Short-time work: Does it save jobs?

Almut Balleer, Britta Gehrke, Wolfgang Lechthaler, Christian Merkl, 12 July 2013

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Short-time work means that the government subsidises the reduction of the working time of an employee to prevent firing. Many countries allow a firm to use this instrument when the demand for its products is lower than its production potential. Since more firms face a shortfall of demand in recessions, there is a rule-based component of short-time work.

Topics: Europe's nations and regions, Labour markets
Tags: Eurozone crisis, Germany, jobs, short-time work

Policy-related uncertainty: At the root of the lost resilience of Eurozone labour markets?

Alfonso Arpaia, Alessandro Turrini, 2 March 2013

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The Eurozone, in contrast to the US, exhibited remarkable labour market resilience in the aftermath of the Lehman shock that lead to the Great Recession. Conversely, as the debt crisis developed, labour markets in the Eurozone weakened and unemployment started growing above what was predicted on the basis of GDP growth (Figure 1).

Topics: Europe's nations and regions, Labour markets
Tags: Eurozone crisis, jobs

The next productivity revolution: The ‘industrial internet’

Marco Annunziata, 7 December 2012

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The largest advanced economies are struggling with weak growth prospects and daunting fiscal challenges. Looking at the macroeconomic equation, there is no easy way out. Looking at the microeconomic level, however, suggests that it is innovation that might come to the rescue.

Topics: Frontiers of economic research
Tags: global crisis, industrial internet, internet, jobs

Jobless recoveries and the disappearance of routine occupations

Henry Siu, Nir Jaimovich, 6 November 2012

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Economic recoveries aren’t what they used to be. Since the end of the Great Recession in June 2009:

Topics: Global crisis, Labour markets, Poverty and income inequality
Tags: Great Depression, Great Recession, jobs, labour, unemployment

Youth unemployment in Europe: More complicated than it looks

Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, 13 October 2012

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Hardly a day goes by without a reminder of youth unemployment rates in excess of 50% in Greece, Spain, Italy, and other parts of the European periphery. Sometimes the reminders are in the form of rants by economists or pundits about the moral deficiency of EZ demands for austerity and the risks of a lost generation of young people.

Topics: Labour markets, Macroeconomic policy, Poverty and income inequality
Tags: Europe, jobs, US, youth unemployment

Confronting the jobs crisis under tight fiscal constraints

Benedict Clements, Ruud de Mooij, Gerd Schwartz, 9 September 2012

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The economic and social consequences of job losses since the onset of the global crisis have been enormous, as Ben Bernanke recently pointed out (Bernanke 2012). Unemployment rates have soared to an average of 11% in the Eurozone in mid-2012, and youth unemployment has reached alarming levels in many places, exceeding 50% in Greece and Spain.

Topics: Macroeconomic policy
Tags: austerity, employment, fiscal policy, jobs

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