The organisation of work has changed dramatically over the last few decades. In particular, the formerly rigidly regulated working time has been replaced by flexible working hour schemes in numerous firms around the world. Taking Germany as an example, in 2010, 36% of employees were entitled to some form of flexible working hours scheme (Figure 1).
Trust-based working time spurs innovation
Holger Görg, Olivier N. Godart, Aoife Hanley, Christiane Krieger-Boden, 8 July 2014
The effect of hours of work on social interaction
Henry Saffer, Karine Lamiraud, 20 February 2008
Do you know who your friends are? Have you seen them lately?
Americans do work more than Europeans, but please don’t think that Europeans are lazy
Claudio Michelacci, Josep Pijoan-Mas, 17 September 2007
The aggregate amount of hours worked in the US and in Continental Europe has evolved quite differently over the last 35 years. In the 1970s the average number of working hours per capita was slightly larger in European countries such as France, Italy, and Germany than in the US. Today Americans work around 30% more than Europeans.
More incentives for employees to work longer hours in US than in Europe
Josep Pijoan-Mas, Claudio Michelacci, 28 May 2007
Since the 1970s, the number of hours worked per employee has fallen substantially in continental Europe, while it has remained roughly constant in the US after reverting a trend of secular decline.
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