There is reasonable hope that the upcoming United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Paris (COP21) will reach a consistent global climate agreement. What makes the negotiations particularly difficult is not economic efficiency, but the equity implications of climate policy. This column presents a framework for incorporating equity concerns into policy design. Building from four equity principles, it reduces the complex problem of international burden sharing to a simple rule tied to a single metric.
Lucas Bretschger, Sunday, October 11, 2015 - 00:00
Jason Furman, Ron Shadbegian, Jim Stock, Wednesday, February 25, 2015 - 00:00
Laura Grigolon, Mathias Reynaert, Frank Verboven, Saturday, January 10, 2015 - 00:00
Radek Stefanski, Friday, May 30, 2014 - 00:00
No comprehensive database of directly measured fossil-fuel subsidies exists at the international or the sub-national level, yet subsidies may be crucial drivers of global carbon emissions. This column describes a novel method for inferring carbon subsidies by examining country-specific patterns in carbon emission-to-output ratios, known as emission intensities. Calculations for 170 nations from 1980-2010 reveal that fossil-fuel price distortions are enormous, increasing, and often hidden. These subsidies contributed importantly to increasing emissions and lower growth.
Richard S J Tol, Friday, April 25, 2014 - 00:00
The IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report estimates lower costs of climate change and higher costs of abatement than the Stern Review. However, current UN negotiations focus on stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at even lower levels than recommended by Stern. This column argues that, given realistic estimates of the rate at which people discount the future, the UN’s target is probably too stringent. Moreover, since real-world climate policy is far from the ideal of a uniform carbon price, the costs of emission reduction are likely to be much higher than the IPCC’s estimates.
Carlo Carraro, Valentina Bosetti, Massimo Tavoni, Thomas F. Rutherford, Richard Richels, Geoffrey Blanford, Monday, December 7, 2009 - 00:00
China and other key developing countries must participate for any global carbon deal to succeed, but they make a strong case for a free pass. What can be done? This column says that they could commit now to accept pre-specified future emission reduction targets in order to effectively address these concerns.
Jaime de Melo, Nicole A. Mathys, Jean-Marie Grether, Saturday, November 28, 2009 - 00:00
The “pollution haven” view asserts that globalisation draws industries to countries with lax environmental regulation. This column presents evidence that that the major polluting industries are not very footloose and that changes in emissions through the relocation of activities are relatively small. The growth of trade itself, however, is likely to contribute to growing emissions associated with transport.
Jean-Marie Grether, Nicole A. Mathys, Saturday, November 21, 2009 - 00:00
What is the geographical distribution of CO2 emissions? This column identifies the Earth’s “polluting centre of gravity” since 1970. It is heading east faster than GDP, which suggests that Asian production is getting more carbon-intensive.
Jisun Kim, Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Friday, October 17, 2008 - 00:00
US climate change policy seems likely to include border measures to address competitiveness concerns. This column warns against such measures, arguing that they will do little to protect US industries, expose the US to retaliatory trade restrictions, and significantly burden the global trading system. The US would be better served by addressing its competitiveness concerns in international negotiations.
Valentina Bosetti, Carlo Carraro, Alessandra Sgobbi, Massimo Tavoni, Tuesday, October 14, 2008 - 00:00
The future of climate change policy is very uncertain due to economic, environmental, and political complexities. This column quantifies the economic cost of delaying action to reduce carbon emissions and argues that the best strategy is to hedge our bets by adopting a mild emissions reduction policy now rather than naïvely waiting for the uncertainties to be resolved.
Arik Levinson, Wednesday, January 2, 2008 - 00:00
Since the 1970s, US manufacturing output has risen by 70% but air pollution has fallen by 58%. Was this due to improved abatement technology or shifting dirty production abroad?
Nicholas Stern, Friday, November 30, 2007 - 00:00
Targets and trading must be at the heart of a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, according to Sir Nicholas Stern delivering the Royal Economic Society’s 2007 annual public lecture today, ahead of next week’s world summit on climate change in Bali.
Jeffrey Frankel, Monday, June 25, 2007 - 00:00
Quantitative emission targets for the 21st century must be set sequentially, a decade at a time, within a long-term framework. A good analogy is the GATT, which produced 50 years of trade liberalisation, the specifics of which the original signers could only have guessed.