How retail drug markets in poor countries develop

Daniel Bennett, Wes Yin 14 August 2014

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Millions of people die each year from infectious diseases like malaria, TB, HIV, and diarrhoea, many of which have drug therapies. We need effective medicine to confront the alarming burden of infectious disease in the developing world. However, many of the drugs for sale in developing countries are of poor quality. Counterfeiters sell ineffective products that imitate the appearance of established brands, while small manufacturers make and distribute substandard versions of common generics.

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Topics:  Development Health economics Industrial organisation

Tags:  competition, pharmaceuticals, India, quality, asymmetric information, economies of scale, healthcare, adverse selection, drugs, medicine, market for lemons, chains

Growing through cities in India

Ejaz Ghani, William Kerr, Ishani Tewari 11 July 2014

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Urbanisation and development are tightly linked (Duranton and Puga 2013). Developing countries are urbanising at a much faster pace than developed countries. For instance, China’s and India’s economic transformation and urbanisation is happening at 100 times the scale of the first country in the world to urbanise – the UK – and in just one-tenth of the time.

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Topics:  Development

Tags:  growth, India, urbanisation

India – igniting inclusive growth by raising female economic participation

Piritta Sorsa 18 June 2014

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India is in many ways at a crossroads in mid-2014. It will have a new government, it will need ignition to restart the growth engine and make it more inclusive. But if this is to happen, then Indian women will have to be given the chance and the incentives to participate more in the labour market. Indian women already show signs of starting gradually to assert themselves more. Currently, female labour force participation is among the lowest in the emerging markets and declining.

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Topics:  Gender Labour markets

Tags:  India, gender gap, female labour market participation

Job protection reform in India

Sean Dougherty, Veronica Frisancho, Kala Krishna 08 May 2014

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India has some of the more restrictive labour laws in the world, but a large informal sector to which these do not apply. Therefore, firms thinking of growing in size and becoming formal must trade off the advantages of size with the disadvantages of facing regulations. This dilemma keeps Indian firms small and informal unless they have a lot to gain by growing, i.e. when they are very good indeed.

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  India, labour market reform

What voters reward: Evidence from the 2009 Indian parliamentary elections

Poonam Gupta, Arvind Panagariya 17 March 2014

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Despite the intuitive appeal of the idea that good economic outcomes such as sustained rapid growth should help incumbents win elections, evidence on it has been scant, especially from developing countries. In one notable exception, Brender and Drazen (2008) use a comprehensive cross-country dataset spanning over 74 developed and developing democratic countries and 350 election episodes to examine whether GDP growth during the term in office or in the election year helps incumbents win elections.

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Topics:  Politics and economics

Tags:  democracy, India, voting

Free lunch? Effect of India’s food subsidy programme on nutrition

Neeraj Kaushal, Felix Muchomba 24 December 2013

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In September the Indian government passed a food security bill guaranteeing 75% of the country’s rural population and 50% of its urban population 5 kilograms of food grain per person per month at heavily subsidised prices (Parliament of India 2013). The bill, projected to cost 3% of the nation’s GDP in the first year of its implementation, has faced criticism as it expands the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) - India’s existing food subsidy programme that is well known for administrative inefficiencies, corruption, and wastage (Bhalla 2013, Shiva 2013).

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Topics:  Development Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  India, nutrition, food subsidy

Policymaking in crises: Pick your poison

Kristin Forbes, Michael W Klein 24 December 2013

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In 2010, the Brazilian finance minister Guido Mantenga declared a ‘currency war’ because of the harmful effects of the strengthening of the real. He blamed the currency’s appreciation on easy money in advanced countries, and to a lesser extent on reserve accumulation in some emerging markets. More recently, concerns were raised by slides in the values of the Indian rupee – which lost 18% of its value against the dollar between February and August – and by the fall in the value of the Indonesian rupiah – which has lost almost a quarter of its value against the US dollar in 2013.

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Topics:  Exchange rates Macroeconomic policy

Tags:  exchange rates, foreign exchange reserves, India, Indonesia, global financial crisis, capital controls, Brazil, currency war

Perverse consequences of well-intentioned regulation: Evidence from India’s child-labour ban

Prashant Bharadwaj, Leah Lakdawala, Nicholas Li 05 December 2013

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Despite decades of near universal opposition to it, child labour is endemic. According to a recent report by the International Labour Organization, there are nearly 168 million child labourers, of whom 85 million work under hazardous conditions (ILO 2013).

There are many policy options to readdress this. Bans and regulations against child labour are among the most popular worldwide.

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Topics:  Development

Tags:  child labour, India

The BRICs party is over

Anders Åslund 04 September 2013

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After a decade of infatuation, investors have suddenly turned their backs on emerging markets. In the BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China – growth rates have quickly fallen and current-account balances have deteriorated.1 The surprise is not that the romance is over but that it could have lasted for so long.

From 2000 to 2008 the world went through one of the greatest commodity and credit booms of all times. Goldman Sachs preached that the BRICs were unstoppable (e.g. Wilson and Purushothaman 2003).

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Topics:  Development International trade

Tags:  Russia, China, India, commodities, protectionism, BRICs, Brazil, BRIC

India and the Emerging Market crisis

Marco Annunziata 01 September 2013

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India has come under siege this summer. The rupee has depreciated sharply since late July, and foreign exchange reserves dropped significantly. The pressure has been triggered by market concerns on the Fed’s intention to ‘taper’ its quantitative easing, against the background of a growth slowdown in China.

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Topics:  Development International finance

Tags:  India

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