EU bank deleveraging

Pierluigi Bologna, Arianna Miglietta, Marianna Caccavaio 14 October 2014

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Ever since the global financial crisis made it apparent that financial institutions had increased their leverage substantially (Figure 1), bank leverage has faced intense scrutiny. In the run-up to the crisis, the ballooning of banks’ balance sheets was primarily driven by both a significant increase in lending activities and an abundance of cheap funding. Many banks expanded dramatically, becoming too highly leveraged and ‘too-big-to-fail’, while at the same time accumulating substantial risks.

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Topics:  EU policies Financial markets Global crisis

Tags:  deleveraging, leverage ratios, bank-sovereign link, EU banks, banking, credit, Eurozone crisis

Property debt overhang: The case of Irish SMEs

Fergal McCann, Tara McIndoe-Calder 23 September 2014

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The detrimental impact of credit and property boom-bust cycles on consumption and growth has received much high-profile attention in the aftermath of the Global Crisis (Mian and Sufi 2013, 2014, Dynan et al. 2012). Separately, an empirical literature on non-financial corporates has shown that debt overhang can negatively impact firm investment (Aivazian et al. 2005, Cai and Zhang 2011, Coricelli et al. 2012).

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Topics:  Financial markets

Tags:  debt overhang, debt, Ireland, Small and medium enterprises, capital allocation, credit booms, credit, asset price bubbles, housing bubble, property bubble

Banks, government bonds, and default: What do the data say?

Nicola Gennaioli, Alberto Martin, Stefano Rossi 19 July 2014

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Recent events in Europe have illustrated how government defaults can jeopardise domestic bank stability. Growing concerns of public insolvency since 2010 caused great stress in the European banking sector, which was loaded with Euro-area debt (Andritzky 2012). Problems were particularly severe for banks in troubled countries, which entered the crisis holding a sizeable share of their assets in their governments’ bonds – roughly 5% in Portugal and Spain, 7% in Italy, and 16% in Greece (2010 EU Stress Test).

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Topics:  Financial markets

Tags:  sovereign debt, financial crises, banking, banks, bonds, sovereign default, credit, bank lending, risk-weighting

Managing credit bubbles

Alberto Martin, Jaume Ventura 05 July 2014

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Credit markets play an increasingly central role in modern economies. Within the OECD, for instance, domestic credit has risen from 100% of GDP in 1970 to approximately 160% of GDP in 2012 (as measured by the Bank for International Settlements). To be sure, this growth masks large variations across countries and over time, but there is a common feature to all these different country experiences that stands out. Credit has often alternated between ‘booms’ – periods of rapid growth – and ‘busts’ – periods of stagnation or significant decline.

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Topics:  Financial markets Macroeconomic policy

Tags:  credit booms, lender of last resort, bubbles, credit, Leaning against the wind, collateral, financial accelerator

Do all firms have equal access to external financing?

Neil Kay, Gavin Murphy, Conor O'Toole, Iulia Siedschlag, Brian O'Connell 29 June 2014

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The proportion of bank loan acceptances has fallen significantly following the crisis, along with the level of enterprise investment. The sharpest falls in both have been in countries hardest hit by the crisis. While in a number of countries – such as Finland, Malta, and Sweden – the declines have been modest, in others – such as in Bulgaria, Ireland, Denmark, Lithuania, Spain, and Greece – they have approached or exceeded 30%.

Figure 1. Percentage change in bank loan acceptances

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Topics:  EU policies Financial markets

Tags:  investment, lending, credit, Finance, SMEs, credit rationing, borrowing, information asymmetries

Estimating the impact of changes in aggregate bank capital requirements during an upswing

Joseph Noss, Priscilla Toffano 06 April 2014

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The recent financial crisis and economic contraction that followed highlighted the crucial role that banks play in facilitating the extension of credit and enabling economic growth. This underlies the economic rationale for imposing regulations on the banking industry, including minimum capital requirements designed to mitigate risks banks would not otherwise account for in their behaviour.

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Topics:  Financial markets

Tags:  regulations, bank regulation, banking, capital requirements, banks, BASEL III, credit, Macroprudential policy, bank capital

Tax evasion and austerity-plan failure

Francesco Pappadà, Yanos Zylberberg 03 February 2014

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Austerity plans in southern European countries (Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Italy) have so far yielded mixed results (Salto 2013). On the one hand, the primary budget balances of these countries have improved, and their risk premiums are now stabilised at a much lower level than during the crisis peak.

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Topics:  Financial markets Taxation

Tags:  VAT, transparency, tax evasion, Greece, credit, austerity, European sovereign debt crisis

European bank deleveraging and global credit conditions

Erik Feyen, Ines Gonzalez del Mazo 12 May 2013

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In the run up to the global financial crisis, European banks significantly increased their lending activities both domestically and outside home markets driven by a procyclical spiral of cheap abundant funding, increasing profitability, and economic growth. European banks not only provided cross-border financing, but became increasingly involved in domestic financial markets via lending activities of their local affiliates.

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Topics:  Europe's nations and regions Global crisis

Tags:  banking, Eurozone crisis, credit

Fact-checking financial recessions: US-UK update

Moritz Schularick, Alan Taylor 24 October 2012

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Debate on the “What should we have expected in terms of economic recovery?” question is raging on the internet (Reinhart and Rogoff 2012, Taylor 2012). Since publishing our widely-read column a few weeks ago, we have received several enquiries asking if we can apply the same benchmarks to evaluate the current performance of the UK economy. We now can.

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Topics:  Economic history Global crisis Macroeconomic policy

Tags:  financial crises, recessions, credit

Credit demand, supply, and conditions: A tale of three crises

Sarah Holton, Martina Lawless, Fergal McCann 04 March 2012

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The post-2007 Eurozone economic crisis has taken on a number of forms. Real economic activity has declined, in certain cases significantly. Turmoil in sovereign and financial sectors has seen yields on government bonds and spreads on bank credit-default swaps (CDSs) increase dramatically. The vast credit expansion of the previous decade has led to large private sector debt overhang.

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Topics:  Europe's nations and regions International finance

Tags:  Credit crunch, Small and medium enterprises, Eurozone crisis, credit

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