Top incomes and the glass ceiling

Tony Atkinson, Alessandra Casarico, Sarah Voitchovsky 10 July 2014

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In the debate about top incomes, one aspect has been strikingly missing: gender. When we talk about the top 1%, how many of it are women? Is there a glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching the very top of the income distribution? These are important questions. Whatever one thinks about the share of income accruing to the top 1%, if women are seriously under-represented, then this raises questions about the fairness of the economic system.

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Topics:  Gender Labour markets

Tags:  gender gap, glass ceiling, top incomes

India – igniting inclusive growth by raising female economic participation

Piritta Sorsa 18 June 2014

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India is in many ways at a crossroads in mid-2014. It will have a new government, it will need ignition to restart the growth engine and make it more inclusive. But if this is to happen, then Indian women will have to be given the chance and the incentives to participate more in the labour market. Indian women already show signs of starting gradually to assert themselves more. Currently, female labour force participation is among the lowest in the emerging markets and declining.

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Topics:  Gender Labour markets

Tags:  India, gender gap, female labour market participation

Gender and the labour market: Evidence from experiments

Ghazala Azmat, Barbara Petrongolo 07 June 2014

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Women have made major inroads in labour markets throughout the past century. As a result, there has been a clear convergence in their levels of human capital investment and their employment prospects and outcomes relative to those of men. But while in most rich countries the gender gap in education has closed – and even reversed – there remain considerable gender differences in pay and employment levels, as well as in the types of activities that men and women perform in the labour market.

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Topics:  Gender Labour markets

Tags:  Discrimination, gender gap, preferences, experiments

The difficult case of persuading women: Experimental evidence from childcare

Vincenzo Galasso, Paola Profeta, Chiara Pronzato, Francesco C. Billari 16 November 2013

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Despite being increasingly more visible in the public debate, gender gaps still remain strong in many countries. In most European countries, labour market differences between men and women are sizable. In 2012 the male employment rate in the EU-27 was 74.6% versus 62.4% for women. But this hides considerable disparities across European countries. While female employment rate is highest in Iceland at 79.1% (84.4% for men), and remains above 70% in Scandinavian countries, it is only 50.5% in Italy (71.6% for men), and even less in Greece and Malta.

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Topics:  Gender Labour markets

Tags:  gender gap, female labour force participation, childcare

Can gender differences in competition explain the achievement gap?

Christopher Cotton, Frank McIntyre, Joseph Price 21 October 2010

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Last week the World Economic Forum released its Global Gender Gap Report (Hausmann et al. 2010). As expected, the data in the report illustrates a significant and persistent pay and achievement gap between males and females around the world.

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  Labour Markets, competition, Discrimination, gender gap, sexism

Gender gaps in performance pay

Sara de la Rica , Juan Dolado, Raquel Vegas 03 August 2010

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One of the cornerstones of the standard competitive model of the labour market is the equilibrium condition equating wages to the value of the marginal product of labour. This implies that the final wage distribution represents the equilibrium outcome of demand and supply forces, a result that has proven useful for analysing how changes in the demand and supply of skills affects wages in economies with flexible labour markets, such as the UK and US. But the competitive model is not without its problems.

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  Discrimination, gender gap, performance pay, marriage

Are workers motivated by the greater good? Evidence from a field experiment

Mirco Tonin, Michael Vlassopoulos 28 May 2010

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What motivates workers? The canonical view in economics is that workers respond to monetary incentives. In line with this perspective, a large literature has been devoted to analysing how compensation contracts should be designed in order to induce workers to be more productive (Prendergast 1999).

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  gender gap, motivation, field experiment

The performance gender gap: Does competition matter?

Evren Örs, Frédéric Palomino, Eloïc Peyrache 21 July 2008

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Women are under-represented in top management positions on both sides of the Atlantic. The academic literature suggests a number of explanations for this underrepresentation, including self-selection, investment in family and child bearing, lower female human capital investment, or gender discrimination. Some countries have responded by setting minimum quotas for female managers.1

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  Management, gender gap, pressure, competitive pressure

Women and politics

Graziella Bertocchi 30 July 2007

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Women represent at least half the world population but, in the discussion on the causes and effects of democratisation, economists have devoted little attention to the analysis of women's political empowerment. This is changing.

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Topics:  Politics and economics

Tags:  women's political empowerment, gender gap

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