Social job-search networks and the transition from school to stable employment

Francis Kramarz, Oskar Nordström Skans 17 October 2013

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The challenges faced by young workers transitioning from school into stable employment are a major concern throughout the OECD. The search for stable employment is a time-consuming process, particularly in countries without highly developed apprenticeship systems. Many young workers – especially the least educated – are caught struggling for years.

Considering the importance of this process we know surprisingly little about the strategies used by young job searchers looking for entry jobs. Two key insights arise from the large body of research on job-finding networks:

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  unemployment, jobs, youth unemployment, graduates

Job placement and displacement: Evidence from a randomised experiment

Bruno Crépon, Esther Duflo, Marc Gurgand, Roland Rathelot, Philippe Zamora 24 April 2013

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Youth unemployment is a growing concern in many countries, including France where more than a quarter of recent graduates cannot find stable work. Some of these young graduates do not benefit from resources like unemployment benefits because they lack a sufficient employment history.

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Topics:  Labour markets

Tags:  unemployment, Eurozone crisis, youth unemployment, graduates

Youth unemployment in Europe: More complicated than it looks

Jacob Funk Kirkegaard 13 October 2012

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Hardly a day goes by without a reminder of youth unemployment rates in excess of 50% in Greece, Spain, Italy, and other parts of the European periphery. Sometimes the reminders are in the form of rants by economists or pundits about the moral deficiency of EZ demands for austerity and the risks of a lost generation of young people. The challenge for Europe’s youth is stark, and demands for government action are long overdue, especially in liberalising the insider biases that make it hard for outsiders to get jobs.

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Topics:  Labour markets Macroeconomic policy Poverty and income inequality

Tags:  US, Europe, jobs, youth unemployment

Apprenticeship policy in England: Increasing skills versus boosting young people’s job prospects

Hilary Steedman 06 October 2012

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Apprenticeships improve the employment prospects of young people by raising their skill levels (Ryan 2001). They provide craft, technician and associate professional skills that are valued by employers. And in England there are substantial wage returns to apprenticeships: an average premium of 18% for those at Level 3 (equivalent to A-level standard) compared with people whose highest qualification is Level 2; and a premium of 16% for those at Level 2 (equivalent to GCSE standard) compared with people whose highest qualification is Level 1 (McIntosh 2007).

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Topics:  Education Labour markets

Tags:  UK, England, youth unemployment, apprenticeships

Going separate ways? Differences in school-to-work pathways between Europe and the US

Glenda Quintini 15 May 2012

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The recent global economic crisis has brought renewed attention to the difficulties faced by youth in the labour market, including high unemployment rates, the risk of long-lasting scars from poor employment outcomes right after leaving education and the resulting risk of social and economic exclusion (Annunziata 2012). Between December 2007 and March 2012, youth in both the US and Europe have suffered from sizeable increases in unemployment rates – 5 and 7.5 percentage points, respectively – compromising the school-to-work transition of recent school graduates.

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Topics:  Education Labour markets

Tags:  unemployment, youth unemployment, optimal matching

Wasted youth

Marco Annunziata 14 May 2012

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Youth unemployment is one of Europe’s most glaring problems. Opponents of austerity point to the swelling ranks of unemployed young (15-25 years of age) people in Europe’s periphery as proof that fiscal tightening can no longer be tolerated. The Financial Times notes that youth unemployment rates have reached 51% in Greece and Spain, 36% in Italy and Portugal, and 30% in Ireland, and warns “is it plausible that people will put up with this indefinitely? No” (Wolf 2012).

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Topics:  Europe's nations and regions Labour markets

Tags:  Dual labour market, austerity, youth unemployment

It's the family, stupid!

Edoardo Campanella 24 February 2012

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Deep economic crises encourage a radical rethinking of the socioeconomic model that generated them. The combination of shrinking economies, political stalemate, and growing social resentment is inducing people, especially the younger, to question a model of society that is prone to generate huge inequalities as well as great instability but is incapable of providing a long-term direction in difficult times. With general elections approaching in most European countries over the next 12 months, there are all the ingredients for populism to emerge.

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Topics:  Politics and economics Welfare state and social Europe

Tags:  family, Ageing population, youth unemployment