How the euro changed the pattern of international debt flows

Galina Hale, Maurice Obstfeld, 15 May 2014

a

A

Internal financial imbalances within the Eurozone were central to the development of the European debt crisis. They resulted in a concentration of European periphery risks on the balance sheets of banks located in core Eurozone countries (Lane 2012, Rey 2012, Shin 2012).

Topics: EU institutions, Financial markets
Tags: Debt crisis, eurozone

The increasing competitiveness of the southern Eurozone

Raphael Auer, 11 April 2014

a

A

Current-account (CA) rebalancing is a necessary step for the Southern EZ countries to overcome their debt and external balance of payments crises.1 Figure 1 documents the impressive speed and magnitude of the southern EZ’s CA rebalancing.

Topics: Europe's nations and regions, International finance
Tags: current account rebalancing, eurozone, Eurozone crisis

Delivering the Eurozone ‘Consistent Trinity’

Marco Buti, Maria Demertzis, João Nogueira Martins, 30 March 2014

a

A

As argued in an earlier commentary, the financial crisis exposed important economic inconsistencies in the way that EMU operated.1 Although progress has been made, the reality is that more needs to be done.

Topics: Europe's nations and regions, Macroeconomic policy
Tags: banking union, debt, EMU, euro, eurozone, Eurozone crisis, fiscal consolidation, fiscal policy, imbalances, internal devaluation, Stability and Growth Pact, structural reforms

The Eiffel group: A political community to rebuild the architecture of the euro

Agnès Benassy-Quéré, Shahin Vallee, 27 March 2014

a

A

The idea that the European Monetary Union can only exist with some form of political integration and a proper budget is not new. In 1977, the MacDougall report suggested that a budget of the order of 5-7% of GDP was necessary, and in the run-up of the Maastricht treaty, Jacques Delors was insistent on the needs for political integration (see, e.g., Delors 1991).

Topics: EU institutions, EU policies
Tags: Eiffel group, eurozone, Eurozone crisis

TARGET balances, Bretton Woods, and the Great Depression

Michael Bordo, 21 March 2014

a

A

During the Eurozone crisis, an analogy was made between the events in Europe between 2007 and 2012 and the collapse of the Bretton Woods System between 1968 and 1971. There has been a build-up of TARGET liabilities since 2007 by some central banks (notably Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain, or the ‘GIPS’), and of TARGET assets by Germany and others.

Topics: Economic history, International finance
Tags: Bretton Woods, Central Banks, ECB, euro, Eurosystem, eurozone, Eurozone crisis, financial crisis, global imbalances, Great Depression, TARGET

A fiscal shock absorber for the Eurozone? Lessons from the economics of insurance

Daniel Gros, 19 March 2014

a

A

Even before the euro crisis started, it had been widely argued that the Eurozone needed a mechanism to help countries overcome idiosyncratic shocks. The experience of the crisis itself seemed to make this case overwhelming, and throughout the EU institutions it is now taken for granted that the Eurozone needs a system of fiscal shock absorbers.

Topics: EU institutions, Macroeconomic policy, Welfare state and social Europe
Tags: euro, eurozone, Eurozone crisis, fiscal policy, fiscal shock absorbers, fiscal shocks, fiscal union, insurance

How much is enough? The case of the Resolution Fund in Europe

Thomas Huertas, María J Nieto, 18 March 2014

a

A

During the crisis, individual institutions such as Hypo Real Estate required public assistance of €100 billion or more.1 So how can a European Resolution Fund of only €55 billion possibly suffice for all banks in the Eurozone?

Topics: EU institutions, Financial markets, International finance
Tags: bail-in, bank resolution, banking, European Resolution Fund, eurozone, Macroprudential policy, microprudential regulation, regulation, systemic risk

Clarifying the debate about deflation concerns

Mickey Levy, 21 February 2014

a

A

A common theme among many economic policymakers, financial market participants, and the media is that rich industrialised nations face a high risk of deflation, and that deflation always harms economic performance and so must be combatted with aggressive macroeconomic stimulus. Such broad assessments are misleading, and under certain circumstances may lead to misguided policies.

Topics: Global crisis, Monetary policy
Tags: deflation, disinflation, Europe, eurozone, Japan, quantitative easing, US

Tracking the causes of Eurozone external imbalances: New evidence

Jose Luis Diaz Sanchez, Aristomene Varoudakis, 6 February 2014

a

A

The Eurozone sovereign debt crisis, triggered by the 2008–09 global financial crisis, exposed macroeconomic imbalances in member countries that had accrued gradually following the advent of the euro in 1999.

Topics: International finance
Tags: competitiveness, European sovereign debt crisis, eurozone, global financial crisis, global imbalances

How the euro synchronised EZ cycles

Ayako Saiki, Sunghyun Henry Kim, 2 February 2014

a

A

Prior to the introduction of the euro, the topic of whether the Eurozone fulfils the conditions for an optimum currency area was highly debated (e.g. Bayoumi and Eichengreen 1992).

Topics: EU institutions, International finance, International trade
Tags: business cycles, East Asia, euro, eurozone, optimum currency area, supply chains, trade

Vox eBooks