Brain drain or brain gain? Evidence from corporate boards
Mariassunta Giannetti , Guanmin Liao, Xiaoyun Yu 03 January 2013
Is the brain drain reversing? This column argues that increasing numbers of foreign-educated and economic emigrants are returning home. Evidence suggests that the best of the bunch bring with them strong corporate governance practises and an appetite for internationalisation. Through this ‘brain gain’, the return of skilled professionals boosts emerging markets’ economies.
Development economists have long warned about the costs for developing countries of the emigration of the best and brightest that decamp to universities and businesses in the developed world (Bhagwati 1976). This brain drain has attracted a considerable amount of economic research.
brain drain, corporate governance, brain gain
Do highly skilled migrants return permanently to their home countries?
Patrick Gaulé 14 December 2010
Brain drain can be a good thing for the source country; one benefit is that some skilled workers eventually return. Unfortunately, there is little evidence on the incidence and nature of such return migration. This column presents new data on the return-migration decisions of foreign faculty based in US chemistry departments.
Many countries are concerned about losing their best scientists, engineers, and other skilled workers to emigration to foreign countries and the US in particular. It is plainly the case that many skilled workers cross national borders. The evidence regarding the brain drain from Europe to the US is surveyed in Saint-Paul (2008). The foreign born represent more than a third of PhD holders in the US Science and Engineering workforce (NSF 2007). Furthermore, these migrants make a disproportionate contribution to US science and innovation (Levin and Stephan 1999 Hunt forthcoming).
US, Labour Markets, brain drain, academics
What are the consequences for development of the most highly skilled migrating?
John Gibson, David McKenzie 12 August 2010
Some argue that the global competition for talented workers leads to a “brain drain” robbing poor countries of their brightest sparks and stifling development. Others suggest that the local economy can benefit through trade, investment, and knowledge transfer. This column argues that for developing countries with the largest high-skilled migration, neither is spot on – by far the biggest impact is on the migrants themselves.
If you were born in the Pacific Islands or the Caribbean and have a university education, the chances are that you have moved abroad – well over half do so (Beineet al. 2008). High-skilled migration is also commonplace in a number of larger developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, 47% of those with a tertiary education live outside of the country (Docquier and Marfouk 2005).
brain drain, Pacific, high-skilled migration
Migration in Latin America: Answering old questions with new data
Bárbara Castelletti, Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Ángel Melguizo 19 March 2010
The economic effects of immigration are often controversial. This column introduces the preliminary findings from a new database on immigration in Latin America and the Caribbean. While immigrants do not seem to displace domestic workers, they are often working in sectors unsuitable for their skills. Better policy could help the destination countries as well as the immigrants themselves.
Does immigration reduce the wages of domestic workers? Are immigrants a substitute for a country’s labour force, thereby pushing up unemployment rates for native-born workers? Are they net beneficiaries of the welfare state?
immigration, brain drain, Latin America and the Caribbean
The European brain drain: European workers living in the US
Gilles Saint-Paul 24 December 2008
This column surveys evidence describing the brain drain from Europe to the US. Europeans living in the US are exceptional – they are more educated, earn higher wages, are more likely to be employed, and more entrepreneurial than their American or European counterparts. Europe's growth prospects may be dramatically reduced by its best and brightest living in the US.
Since 1995, America has grown faster while enjoying lower unemployment than Europe. Adding to Europe's growth angst are worries about aging populations, its inability to adapt to technical change, the burden of its welfare state, and the pains of labour market deregulation. A particular worry is that Europe is losing its most talented workers to the US. Stories of succesfull expatriates in Silicon Valley and top academic departments abound. European politicians and businesses complain that they cannot compete with the US due to taxes and regulations (François-Poncet 1999, Mahroum 1999).
US, European Monetary Union, brain drain
Brain Drained: A Tale of Two Countries
Dan Ben-David 14 March 2008
This second column on Israeli academic migration to the United States examines the differences in higher education policies that are driving the brain drain.
While the number of European scholars in America ranges from one to four percent of the scholars in their individual home countries, 73% of those who earn their PhDs in the States indicate a desire to stay there (European Commission, 2003).
Sound far-fetched? A look at what has already happened to Israel should serve as a warning that this is not a number that Europe should take lightly. The number of Israeli academics in U.S. universities has already reached 25% of the scholars still remaining in Israel, and there is no clear end in sight for this freefall.
higher education, Israel, academic migration, U.S. universities, brain drain
Brain Drained: Soaring Minds
Dan Ben-David 13 March 2008
This column introduces a two-part series on how differences between universities are inducing a massive academic migration from Israel to the United States. The magnitude of this scholarly brain drain is unparalleled in the western world.
The brain drain is no longer merely a concern about outmigration from developing to developed countries. As border barriers to individuals whose skills are in demand fall, a greater number of those who can move are choosing to do so, particularly in academia. In its examination of the brain drain to the United States, the European Commission (2003) reported that 73% of the 15,000 Europeans who studied for their PhD in the States between 1991 and 2000 plan to remain in America.
Israel, academic migration, brain drain, foreign scholars, US universities