The literature on innovation and international trade has, until recently, focused almost exclusively on the manufacturing sector. This is not surprising because the bulk of international trade has been in manufactured products and innovation has traditionally been associated with new or improved physical products.
Trade and innovation in services
Leonardo Iacovone, Aaditya Mattoo, Andrés Zahler, 15 September 2013
The real exchange rate and export growth: Are services different?
Barry Eichengreen, Poonam Gupta, 18 January 2013
The role of exports in economic growth and, in turn, of the real exchange rate in export promotion features prominently in literature on development and globalisation (Rodrik 2009, Haddad and Pancaro 2010). Much of this literature dates, however, from an era when ‘exports’ meant ‘exports of merchandise‘.
Spatial disparities in India: Have Mumbai and Chennai become too congested?
Klaus Desmet, Ejaz Ghani, Stephen D O'Connell, Esteban Rossi-Hansberg , 13 June 2012
In the last two decades the Indian economy has been growing at unprecedented rates, but that development has led to widening spatial disparities. While some cities such as Hyderabad have become major high-tech hubs with world-class companies and real estate developments reminiscent of Silicon Valley, many other places remain mired in poverty and stagnation.
Are China and India converging?
Ejaz Ghani, 23 January 2012
Both China and India have attracted global attention for rapid growth, but their growth patterns are very different (Rajan 2006, Pack 2008, Bosworth and Maertens 2010). China took the conventional route of manufacturing-led growth and is recognised as a global leader in manufactured exports.
Boosting growth in high-debt times: The role of service deregulation
Federico Cingano, Guglielmo Barone, 6 December 2011
Many European countries face the challenge of credibly reducing their debt-to-GDP ratios. Boosting output growth is therefore an urgent and key political and economic priority.
Services trade liberalisation and regulatory reform: Re-invigorating international cooperation
Bernard Hoekman, Aaditya Mattoo, 24 December 2010
Trade in services has a mountain to climb. In both high-income and developing countries, the barriers to trade and restrictions on investment in the services sector are far higher than for the goods sector. In emerging markets the discrepancy is even more severe (see Figure 1 and Borchert et al. 2010). The costs of such policies are big and wide.
Regulatory reform in services sectors: The missing explanation for the revival of Indian manufacturing?
Jens Matthias Arnold, Beata Javorcik, Molly Lipscomb, Aaditya Mattoo, 12 October 2010
A vital element of India’s rapid economic growth since the early 1990s has been the impressive performance of its manufacturing industries. Output in manufacturing grew by 5.7% per year in the period 1993-2005, while exports grew at almost twice that rate (Reserve Bank of India 2008).
The service revolution in India
Ejaz Ghani, 25 February 2010
The story of Hyderabad – the capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh – is truly inspiring for late-comers to development. Within two decades, Andhra Pradesh has catapulted itself straight from a poor and largely agricultural economy into a major service centre.
Leading with services: The dynamics of transatlantic negotiations in services
Patrick A Messerlin, Erik van der Marel, 31 July 2009
Services providers are busy redesigning their strategies for coping with the ongoing economic crisis. To take the appropriate decisions, they need predictable future market access in services. Meanwhile, as many services are still highly protected, opening services markets would deliver large benefits to consumers impoverished by the crisis.
The historical roots of India’s booming service economy
Stephen Broadberry, Bishnupriya Gupta, 9 May 2008
India’s recent spectacular rate of economic growth, combined with the sheer size of its population, means that it is beginning to take its place as one of the key players in the global economy.1 One way in which India stands out from other Asian economies is in the better performance of its service sector.
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