Service sector regulation and exports: Evidence from Spain

Rafael Doménech, Mónica Correa-López 10 August 2014

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During the crisis, recommendations to improve market functioning in advanced economies have ranked consistently high in the policy portfolio of international institutions (OECD 2014, Buti and Padoan 2013). Among the guidelines, the removal of anti-competitive regulations in the provision of key services that are inputs to other stages of production may be especially relevant to firm performance.

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Topics:  International trade

Tags:  services, regulation, service sector, liberalization

Credit ratings and regulatory risk weights

Harold Cole, Thomas F Cooley 22 June 2014

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One of the casualties of the financial crisis has been the reputation of the major credit rating agencies. To many, the problem with the credit ratings business seems obvious:

  • The ‘issuer-pays’ market structure, in which the issuers pay the agencies to rate their debt instruments, distorts incentives.

The issuers want higher ratings to lower their cost of borrowing, and can shop among raters to get higher ratings (Pagano and Volpin 2010). Seems obvious, right?

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Topics:  Financial markets Global crisis Microeconomic regulation

Tags:  regulation, credit rating agencies, capital requirements, risk weights, sub-prime crisis, reputation

Net neutrality: A simple goal with some difficult implementation ahead

Joshua Gans 11 June 2014

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Net neutrality has a simple goal – to ensure that consumers face an undistorted choice in choosing where to devote their attention on the Internet. The rationale for that goal is to ensure a ‘level playing field’ for those who provide content, applications, or anything else via the Internet.

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Topics:  Competition policy Industrial organisation Microeconomic regulation

Tags:  US, technology, market power, regulation, internet, price discrimination, net neutrality, Federal Communications Commission

Are banks too large?

Lev Ratnovski, Luc Laeven, Hui Tong 31 May 2014

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Large banks have grown significantly in size and become more involved in market-based activities since the late 1990s. Figure 1 shows how the balance-sheet size of the world’s largest banks increased two- to four-fold in the ten years prior to the crisis. Figure 2 illustrates how banks shifted from traditional lending towards market-oriented activities.

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Topics:  Financial markets

Tags:  regulation, economies of scale, bank regulation, banking, Too big to fail, systemic risk, BASEL III, bank resolution, bank capital

Spillovers from systemic bank defaults

Mark Mink, Jakob de Haan 24 May 2014

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Financial-crisis management and prevention policies often focus on mitigating spillovers from the default of systemically important banks. During the recent crisis, governments avoided large bank failures by insuring and purchasing intermediaries’ troubled assets, by providing them with capital injections, and even by outright nationalisations. After the crisis, financial regulators designed additional requirements for those institutions that the Financial Stability Board designated as globally systemically important banks (G-SIBs).

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Topics:  Financial markets

Tags:  financial stability, spillovers, regulation, banking, banks, systemic risk

Determinants of generic medicine adoption

Joan Costa-i-Font, Alistair McGuire, Nebibe Varol 10 May 2014

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With healthcare budgets around the world under pressure, switching to generics seems a natural cost saver. Generic drugs are cheaper alternatives to branded medicines, offering an obvious source of efficiency gains to any health system.

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Topics:  Competition policy Health economics

Tags:  competition, pharmaceuticals, health, regulation, healthcare, drugs, medicine, generics

Is cannabis use really so harmful?

Ali Palali, Jan van Ours 01 May 2014

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Cannabis is prohibited in many countries. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2013) discusses several alternatives to prohibition, varying from decriminalisation to regulation and legalisation.

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Topics:  Health economics

Tags:  cannabis, regulation, Prohibition, drug policy, legalisation, decriminalisation

How much is enough? The case of the Resolution Fund in Europe

Thomas Huertas, María J Nieto 18 March 2014

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During the crisis, individual institutions such as Hypo Real Estate required public assistance of €100 billion or more.1 So how can a European Resolution Fund of only €55 billion possibly suffice for all banks in the Eurozone?

It could, provided the Fund is part of a well-designed architecture for regulation, supervision, and resolution, that makes banks not only less likely to fail but also safe to fail – meaning that they can be resolved without cost to the taxpayer and without significant disruption to financial markets or the economy at large.

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Topics:  EU institutions Financial markets International finance

Tags:  eurozone, regulation, banking, systemic risk, microprudential regulation, bank resolution, Macroprudential policy, bail-in, European Resolution Fund

Market mechanisms for regulation: Cap-and-trade and Obamacare

Jeffrey Frankel 27 February 2014

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Markets can fail. But market mechanisms are often the best way for governments to address such failures. This has been demonstrated in areas from air pollution, to traffic congestion, to spectrum allocation, to cigarette consumption.

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Topics:  Environment Politics and economics

Tags:  environment, global warming, pollution, regulation, healthcare, Cap-and-trade, market-based mechanisms, Obamacare, EU ETS

The determinants of banks’ liquidity buffers and the role of liquidity regulation

Clemens Bonner, Iman van Lelyveld, Robert Zymek 01 November 2013

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Until recently, liquidity risk was not the main focus of banking regulators. However, the 2007–2009 crisis showed how rapidly market conditions can change, exposing severe liquidity risks for some institutions. Although capital buffers were effective in reducing liquidity stress to some extent, they were not always sufficient. In the light of this, efforts are underway internationally as well as in individual countries to establish or reform existing liquidity risk frameworks – most notably the proposals by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS 2013).

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Topics:  Financial markets Microeconomic regulation

Tags:  transparency, liquidity, regulation, banking, Too big to fail, disclosure

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